September 9th 2020

Executive Summary
Defining Criteria
Accessibility Vs Usability
Who Has Accessibility Requirements?
Assistive Technology
How do Common Accessibility Practices Impact Users?
Measuring Criteria
Identifying Criteria
Identifying Domains
Objective
Methodology
Results & Findings
Conclusion
Data Tables

Executive Summary                

There are nearly 14 million people in the UK with a disability (Big Hack). Over 7 million of these people’s disabilities are likely to impact the way they experience the internet. Not only is there an obvious ethical obligation to ensure websites are built to be as accessible and inclusive as possible, but there is also an enormous commercial incentive; the 2019 Clickaway Pound report estimates that 70% of users with disabilities will leave a site if they encounter accessibility issues, which amounts to the loss of online revenue to the tune of around £17.1 billion a year. At Erudite we have found through A/B testing simple accessibility improvements that we have been able to achieve significant uplifts in conversion rate, and therefore sales revenue for our clients!

This study aims to ascertain how widely the WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) Accessibility Standards are adopted and adhered to by looking at a cross-section of URLs from the UK’s most popular domains. From this, we can learn what the most common pitfalls and failings are, how our sites stack up against industry peers, and how different industries stack up against the rest of the web.

The results of this analysis showed that generally, the most prevalent accessibility issues are among the most easily fixed. Low colour contrast was the most prevalent error type, with URLs having around 35 occurrences each on average. Empty links and images missing alt text were the next most prevalent errors. Interestingly, these are practices that have far wider benefits than accessibility alone! Improving colour contrast improves readability and UX for all users, and link anchor text and image alt text can have great SEO benefits.

This analysis found that, across all types of accessibility testing, the worst-performing industry was the adult industry. Government & Non-Profit, Banking and Financial Services, Academic and Health & Medical Services sites were consistently strong performers.

Defining Criteria

What is web accessibility?

W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative defines web accessibility as “websites, tools, and technologies are designed and developed so that people with disabilities can use them.

More specifically, people can:

  • Perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web
  • Contribute to the Web

Web accessibility encompasses all disabilities that affect access to the Web, including:

  • Auditory
  • Cognitive
  • Neurological
  • Physical
  • Speech
  • Visual

At its core, accessibility is a set of technical requirements that a web product (website, app, tool etc) must adhere to in order to be completely accessible to all users. The most well-known accessibility standard is the WCAG 2.0.

Accessibility Vs Usability

However, accessibility standards alone are not sufficient. Accessibility refers purely to technical aspects of a site and how it is coded. While ensuring accessibility requirements are catered for by our sites is an important step towards ensuring our design is truly inclusive, it does not give us a real-world view of how sites function in practice.

Usability addresses this issue and considers how sites can be navigated, interpreted and used by users with disabilities in practice. Usability criteria are typically more difficult to quantify but are no less important in assessing the true usefulness and ease of use of a site for disabled users.

Consider the following example from WAI:

Suppose you have the following image on your site, on a page that’s explaining how to charge your phone, and a visitor with a visual impairment is using a screen reader to help them interpret the page.

Phone charging with example of helpful alt text and unhelpful alt text.

Imagine trying to understand the instructions if you cannot see the image clearly, but the alternative text is being read to you by a screen reader. The alternative text on the left is not helpful and is likely to delay the user’s experience unnecessarily. The alternative text on the right,  communicates the same message as the image and is much more useful to a user who cannot see the image clearly.

The important distinction  is that this image technically adheres to accessibility standards – it has alternative text. However, from a usability perspective (and in the real world), only the image on the right would suffice.

Usability is a crucial aspect of inclusivity on the internet and not a factor to be overlooked. However, in many cases, in order to have a usable site, accessibility standards must first be adhered to (to revisit our example above, the right-hand image could not have been usable without first having alternative text, which is the technical element that WCAG 2.0 requires. Usability, contrary to accessibility, has no official standard or criteria, which makes it particularly difficult to measure.

Therefore, this research will examine web accessibility criteria in order to establish an overall benchmark of accessibility practices online. Expanding this research in future to include usability criteria would give a more complete picture, but in the absence of an official usability standard or quantifiable criteria, including it is beyond the scope of this project.

Who Has Accessibility Requirements?

Accessibility affects a large proportion of people in the UK – many more than most people might imagine.

According to the disability charity Scope, there are 13.9 million people with disabilities in the UK, which fall within a broad spectrum of capabilities and requirements. The University of Cambridge classify these into the following:

  • Sensory (e.g.  visual, auditory)
  • Cognitive (e.g. thinking, communication)
  • Motor (e.g. locomotion, fatigue, dexterity)

This range of capabilities means that users with disabilities require different features and considerations on websites in order to navigate, interact with and interpret them easily. Some users will use assistive technologies such as screen readers, some will have difficulty using a mouse, and may use their keyboard to navigate around a page or may find certain colour palettes difficult to read to name but a few.

The 2018/19 Family Resource Survey by the Department of Work & Pensions found that 19% of working-age adults and 44% of state pension age adults reported having a disability.

Some disabilities are more likely to be impacted by accessibility barriers online than others. The Clickaway Pound report found that the following impairments were most likely to be impacted: (numbers of people in each group from the Department of Work & Pensions Family Resource Survey 2018/19).

  • Visual (1.7 million)
  • Hearing (1.8 million)
  • Manual dexterity (3.7 million)
  • Neuro-diversity (3.2 million)

Further to this, of disabled state pension-age adults, 34% reported that they had dexterity impairments, with 23% reporting hearing impairments, 18% reporting visual impairments and 11% reporting some kind of neuro-diversity.

With the UK’s ageing population, (ONS 2018 estimate that in 50 years there will be an additional 8.6 million people in the UK over the age of 65) it is reasonable to assume that the number of people with impairments of this nature is going to increase too.

Assistive Technology

Many people with disabilities use assistive technologies (AT) to help them interact with the internet more easily. The Clickaway Pound report found that 71% of people with disabilities felt their experience on the internet was impacted by their disability, and 69% of those people used assistive technologies. They found the most common tools to be the following:

  • Screenreader software (58%)
  • Screen magnification (14%)
  • Dictation software (13%)
  • Other (10%) speech input & output software, scanning and reading software, specialised AT for things like dyslexia)
  • Refreshable braille (5%)

(of 53% of disabled population who use AT according to Clickaway Pound)

To understand the impact of accessibility criteria in a real-world setting, we will categorise accessibility criteria according to compatibility with these types of assistive technology.

As not all people with disabilities use assistive technology, we will also categorise accessibility criteria according to which types of impairments are most likely to be impacted (visual, hearing, manual dexterity or neuro-diversity).

How Do Common Accessibility Practices Impact Users?

Users with disabilities will experience websites differently depending on the nature and extent of their disability. For example; not all users with a visual impairment will use a screen reader or pinch-zoom – many prefer to wear glasses, low colour contrast could impact users with visual impairments, but isn’t likely to impact users with a hearing impairment and great mouseless navigation is likely to be useful for some users with motor impairments, but less useful for those who prefer to use a mouse.

Whatever the disability, inaccessible sites can be incredibly frustrating for users. 71% of disabled customers said they would click away from a website they find difficult to use.

  • Visually impaired – Visually impaired users can interact with websites using a range of assistive technology such as screen readers or refreshable braille, or may choose not to use any additional technology and interact with the site without intervention, or by using browser tools to increase the text size or zoom in. They may find small text or low colour contrasts between background and foreground elements particularly tricky or difficult to interpret. Images with text embedded in them (rather than having it overlaid as HTML), particularly if they are missing alt text and are important for navigation could harm the experience of these users, as could redundant, overly long or uninformative alt text. Missing skip links, poor use of structural elements (Heading structure and nesting, use of OL, UL etc.), poor or no form labelling and landmarking (e.g. use of nav, main, footer elements) can all be particularly troublesome for users with visual impairments.
  • Hearing-impaired – Typically, the web caters quite well for users with hearing impairments, as it is commonplace for any user to want to navigate the internet with their sound turned off. However, it is important to bear in mind that for some people with hearing impairments, English is not a user’s first language; sign-language is. Consider this when producing copy and ensure that the main points are made clearly and concisely and that it is it easily readable for a wide range of reading abilities.
  • Manual dexterity – Users with motor impairments or who lack manual dexterity may find using a mouse difficult or small touch screen difficult and may choose to use their keyboard or another form of assistive technology to navigate a site rather than a mouse. For these users, focus management (the practice of allowing users to use the tab key to jump between elements of a page) is very important. The tab order on a page should be logical (generally top to bottom and left to right) and all content should be accessible via keyboard. Where content is hidden or off-page, tabindex order can be altered to ensure it is only ‘tabbable’ when is the element is visible on the page. Use of features like skip links and correctly nested headings to ensure users can jump to the content on a page without having to tab through the navigation is also very valuable.

    For users who prefer to use a mouse, it is particularly important to ensure touchpoints and CTAs are large enough to tap or click on easily, with plenty of surrounding space to prevent users from making unintentional gestures. Complicated widgets or UI features should have a standard alternative, and users should have the ability to turn off the need for complicated gestures or phone tilting.
  • Neuro-diverse – Neurodiversity encompasses an enormous breadth of requirements. This could include users with autism, epilepsy or learning difficulties to name a few. Each user will likely have their specific preferences, but general good practice would ensure that there are no excessive animations (particularly those that blink or flicker) and any auto-playing video or animated content can easily be turned off to prevent it being distracting or problematic for users with light sensitivity.

    Page copy is again, crucially important. Ensure the main points of your content are easily readable, simple and concise and break your content up with correctly nested headings, bulleted lists and supplementary imagery. Avoid figurative speech or excessive idiom where at all possible, as some users may find this difficult to understand.

    Where the user is required to give input or interact with a page to get a certain outcome, offer clear instruction and avoid the use of time limits where possible, as some users may find it difficult to read quickly, or may find the time pressure makes them anxious.

What is considered ‘accessible’ varies widely depending on the user and their preferences and requirements, and as such, this list is by no means exhaustive. It is intended to give a contextual background to the ways different digital practices could impact users, and the implications for users within these groups if they are not catered to. Great accessibility means great user experience for everyone, and there are many more accessibility criteria to consider that will have an impact upon your entire audience.

Measuring Criteria

To effectively assess accessibility on the internet today, we must identify the following:

  • Criteria against which we will measure the accessibility of websites
  • The most popular websites in the UK, so we can be sure that our sample is representative of internet usage in the UK.

Identifying Criteria

The most widely accepted accessibility standards are the WCAG2.0. This standard was adopted by the UK government as the acceptable standard of accessibility for public sector websites in September 2019, giving them until September 2020 to comply. WCAG2 also became an ISO standard in 2012, making it the internationally recognised web accessibility standard.

As previously discussed, both WCAG 2.0 and its successor WCAG2.1 contain numerous testing criteria that cannot be automated and must, therefore, be omitted for the purposes of this research.

Identifying Domains

Choosing a sample of websites in the UK to analyse poses some difficulties. Firstly, the sample needs to be large enough to span all industries, verticals and website types (editorial, ecommerce, services etc.) but also needs to represent a large proportion of the UK’s internet browsing behaviour in order to give the most accurate representation of users’ real-life experiences as possible. This means we need to establish a way to measure the relative popularity of websites in the UK and identify the most popular. Because, due to its very nature, the internet doesn’t conform to conventional international borders, identifying sites that impact internet users in the UK specifically brings an additional complication.

As individual site traffic data is not usually publicly available, we have used a combination of SEMRush, Sistrix and SimilarWeb data to identify top UK sites by Organic Traffic. The top 250 sites in the UK were extracted and categorised manually by industry.

Finally, we need to account for site size in our analysis. Measuring accessibility in terms of occurrences of failed tests per site does not give a fair representation of the site’s accessibility. A site with 100 pages and 100 failed tests is considerably different to a site with 10 pages and 100 failed tests, or 1,000 pages and 100 failed tests. Therefore, the 10 most visited pages for each site (in terms of Organic traffic in the UK, according to SEMRush) will be analysed.

Measuring Criteria

In order to assess the accessibility of such a large volume of sites, we have selected the WAVE API. WAVE checks against WCAG2.1 criteria and offers the benefit of delivering large amounts of data on each URL; returning the number of incidences of each of the criteria found on the URL (e.g. a page with 3 images missing alt text will return Alt Missing = 3). These criteria are subcategorised into the following categories;

  • Error – broken accessibility features or errors that must be fixed.
  • Alert – indications that there may be an accessibility issue.
  • Feature – an element or feature on the page that may improve accessibility.
  • Structure – structural elements that, when used correctly, will make content more easily navigated and interpreted.
  • ARIA – ARIA semantic mark-up, which is often used to describe elements on a page to AT users.

WAVE’s API allows bulk analysis of sites against the following criteria:

Error NameTitleTypeSummary
AccesskeyAccesskeyalertAn accesskey attribute is present.
AltAlternative textfeatureImage alternative text is present.
Alt AreaImage map area with alternative textfeatureAlternative text is present for an image map area (hot spot).
Alt Area MissingImage map area missing alternative texterrorAlternative text is not present for an image map area (hot spot).
Alt DuplicateA nearby image has the same alternative textalertTwo images near each other have the same alternative text.
Alt InputImage button with alternative textfeatureAlternative text is present for an image input element.
Alt Input MissingImage button missing alternative texterrorAlternative text is not present for a form image
button.
Alt LinkLinked image with alternative textfeatureAlternative text is present for an image that is within a link.
Alt Link MissingLinked image missing alternative texterrorAn image without alternative text results in an
empty link.
Alt LongLong alternative textalertAn image has very long alternative text.
Alt MapImage map with alternative textfeatureAn alt attribute is present for an image that has
hot spots.
Alt Map MissingImage map missing alternative texterrorAn image that has hot spots does not have an alt attribute.
Alt MissingMissing alternative texterrorImage alternative text is not present.
Alt NullNull or empty alternative textfeatureAlternative text is null or empty (alt=””).
Alt RedundantRedundant alternative textalertThe alternative text for an image is the same as
nearby or adjacent text.
Alt SpacerNull or empty alternative text on spacerfeatureAlternative text is null or empty (alt=””) on a spacer
image.
Alt Spacer MissingSpacer image missing alternative texterrorA layout spacer image (which should have
null/empty alternative text) does not have an alt attribute.
Alt SuspiciousSuspicious alternative textalertAlternative text is likely insufficient or contains extraneous
information.
AppletJava AppletalertA Java applet is present.
ARIAARIAariaAn ARIA role, state, or property is present.
Aria ButtonARIA buttonariaAn element with role=”button” is
present.
Aria Described ByARIA descriptionariaAn aria-describedby attribute is present.
Aria ExpandedARIA expandedariaAn aria-expanded attribute is present.
Aria Has PopupARIA popupariaAn element triggers a popup menu, dialog, or other element.
Aria HiddenARIA hiddenariaContent is hidden with ARIA.
Aria LabelARIA labelariaAn aria-label or aria-labelledby attribute is present.
Aria Live RegionARIA alert or live regionariaAn ARIA alert role or live region is present.
Aria MenuARIA menuariaAn ARIA menu is present.
Aria Menu BrokenBroken ARIA menuerrorAn ARIA menu does not contain required menu
items.
Aria Reference BrokenBroken ARIA referenceerrorAn aria-labelledby or aria-describedby reference exists, but the
target for the reference does not exist.
Aria TabindexARIA tabindexariaA tabindex value of 0 or less is present.
AsideAsidestructureAn aside element or complementary landmark is present.
Audio VideoAudio/VideoalertAn audio or video file or link is present.
BlinkBlinking contenterrorBlinking content is present.
Button EmptyEmpty buttonerrorA button is empty or has no value text.
ContrastVery Low ContrastcontrastVery low contrast between foreground and background colors.
DLDefinition/description liststructureA definition/description list (dl element) is
present.
Event HandlerDevice dependent event handleralertAn event handler is present that may not be accessible.
FieldsetFieldsetfeatureA fieldset is present.
Fieldset MissingMissing fieldsetalertA group of check boxes or radio buttons is not enclosed in a fieldset.
FlashFlashalertFlash content is present.
FooterFooterstructureA footer element or contentinfo landmark is present.
H1Heading level 1structureA first level heading (h1 element) is present.
H1 MissingMissing first level headingalertA page does not have a first level heading.
H2Heading level 2structureA second level heading (h2 element) is present.
H3Heading level 3structureA third level heading (h3 element) is present.
H4Heading level 4structureA fourth level heading (h4 element) is present.
H5Heading level 5structureA fifth level heading (h5 element) is present.
H6Heading level 6structureA sixth level heading (h6 element) is present.
HeaderHeaderstructureA header element or banner landmark is present.
Heading EmptyEmpty headingerrorA heading contains no content.
Heading MissingNo heading structurealertThe page has no headings.
Heading PossiblePossible headingalertText appears to be a heading but is not a heading
element.
Heading SkippedSkipped heading levelalertA heading level is skipped.
HTML5 Video AudioHTML5 video or audioalertA video or audio element is present.
IframeInline FramestructureAn inline frame (iframe) is present.
Javascript JumpmenuJavaScript jump menualertA JavaScript jump menu may be present.
LabelForm labelfeatureA form label is present and associated with a form control.
Label EmptyEmpty form labelerrorA form label is present, but does not contain any
content.
Label MissingMissing form labelerrorA form control does not have a corresponding label.
Label MultipleMultiple form labelserrorA form control has more than one label associated
with it.
Label OrphanedOrphaned form labelalertA form label is present, but it is not correctly associated with a
form control.
Label TitleUnlabeled form element with titlealertA form control does not have a label, but has a
title.
LangElement languagefeatureThe language of a page element or part is identified.
Language MissingDocument language missingerrorThe language of the document is not identified.
Legend MissingFieldset missing legendalertA fieldset does not have a legend.
Link DocumentLink to documentalertA link to a non-HTML document is present.
Link emptyEmpty linkerrorA link contains no text.
Link ExcelLink to Excel spreadsheetalertA link to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is
present.
Link Internal BrokenBroken same-page linkalertA link to another location within the page is present but does not
have a corresponding target.
Link PDFLink to PDF documentalertA link to a PDF document is present.
Link PowerpointLink to PowerPoint documentalertA link to a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation is present.
Link RedundantRedundant linkalertAdjacent links go to the same URL.
Link SkipSkip linkfeatureA link is present which allows users to skip over navigation or other
content.
Link Skip BrokenBroken skip linkerrorA skip navigation link exists, but the target for
the link does not exist or the link is not keyboard accessible.
Link Skip TargetSkip link targetfeatureA target for a “skip” link is present.
Link SuspiciousSuspicious link textalertLink text contains extraneous text or may not
make sense out of context.
Link WordLink to Word documentalertA link to a Microsoft Word document is present.
LongdescLong descriptionalertThe longdesc attribute is present.
Longdesc InvalidInvalid longdescerrorThe longdesc attribute is not a URL.
MainMain contentstructureA main element or main landmark is present.
MarqueeMarqueeerrorA marquee element is present.
Meta RefreshPage refreshes or redirectserrorThe page is set to automatically change location
or refresh using a meta tag.
NavNavigationstructureA nav element or navigation landmark is present.
NoscriptNoscript elementalertA noscript element is present.
OLOrdered liststructureAn ordered (numbered) list (ol element) is present.
PluginPluginalertAn unidentified plugin is present.
Region MissingNo page regionsalertNo page regions or ARIA landmarks were found.
SearchSearchstructureAn ARIA search landmark is present.
TabindexTabindexalertA positive tabindex value is present.
Table CaptionTable captionstructureA table caption is present.
Table Caption PossiblePossible table captionalertText appears to be a table caption, but is not a caption element.
Table DataData tablestructureA data table is present.
Table LayoutLayout tablealertA layout table is present.
Text JustifyJustified textalertFully justified text is present.
Text SmallVery small textalertText is very small.
THTable header cellstructureA table header cell (th) is present.
TH ColColumn header cellstructureA table column header (th scope=”col”) is present.
TH EmptyEmpty table headererrorA th (table header) contains no text.
TH RowRow header cellstructureA table row header (th scope=”row”) is present.
Title InvalidMissing or uninformative page titleerrorThe page title is missing or not descriptive.
Title Redundant Redundant title textalertTitle attribute text is the same as text or alternative text.
ULUnordered liststructureAn unordered (bulleted) list (ul element) is
present.
UnderlineUnderlined textalertUnderlined text is present.


Objective

The objective of this research is to establish a benchmark of the following:

  1. How well sites are catering for individuals with accessibility needs in the UK.
  2. Which industries perform above and below average and whether there are any outliers.
  3. How accessibility differs between mobile and desktop sites and whether there are any industry-specific differences between desktop and mobile performance.
  4. How many sites were found to be free of errors.
  5. Which were the most commonly found accessibility errors and pitfalls and whether there are any industry-specific patterns.
  6. What proportion of sites were found to be missing basic accessibility features, such as skip links and ARIA.

Methodology

The sample of URLs were selected my drawing a list of the 200 most popular domains in the UK (in terms of Organic visibility), using a combination of SEMRush, Sistrix and SimilarWeb data. For each of these domains, the top ten URLs (in terms of Organic traffic) were selected.

Domains were then manually categorised by primary industry.

The WAVE API was then used to measure the accessibility of each of the URLs selected. The WAVE API measures against 104 criteria (see Appendix…), which are categorised into 5 subcategories; Errors, Alerts, Structure, Features, ARIA and Contrast. For each URL, the frequency of the occurrence of each criteria on the page is reported by the API (e.g. a page with one missing Table Header will return the value  Table Header Missing = 1).

Errors are criteria which indicate that something is explicitly missing or broken, where Alerts are indications that something may be missing or broken but requires manual confirmation.

Structure, Features and ARIA do not report frequency of errors, but frequency of a certain element, feature or mark-up that is important for accessibility being present on a page. The absence of these indicates a lack of catering for users with accessibility needs.

Finally, Contrast refers to the frequency of low colour contrast appearing on a page.

NOTE: Data collection was carried out in April 2020, during the early stages of the UK Lockdown as a result of Coronavirus. At this time, many sites were unable to cope with demand and had implemented queuing systems to access content and returned server errors as a result when crawled. These sites were removed from the sample.

Results & Findings

Prevalence of Accessibility Errors

Overall, sites were found to have over 25 errors per page on average. This was found to be slightly higher on desktop than on mobile, with desktop seeing 25.72 errors/page on average and mobile seeing 24.94.

CategoryMobileDesktopDifferenceAv.Above/Below Av Performance
All24.9425.720.7825.33
Automotive20.1317.33-2.818.73Above
Consumer Services17.3616.55-0.8116.955Above
Health & Medical Services16.3616.06-0.316.21Above
Academic16.4616.38-0.0816.42Above
Banking & Financial Services3303Above
Government & Non-Profit14.9815.20.2215.09Above
Other20.721.350.6521.025Above
Travel & Leisure21.0725.344.2723.205Above
Social Media15.6420.394.7518.015Above
Retail34.3433.67-0.6734.005Below
News & Media36.9837.60.6237.29Below
Adult40.8241.610.7941.215Below
Business Services20.9432.711.7626.82Below

Industry-Specific Performance

Overall, performance varies significantly by industry:

  • Banking and Financial Services came out on top with just 3 errors/page on average.
  • Government & Non-Profit sites followed, but with a considerable jump to just over 15 errors/page on average.
  • The worst performing industry was found to be Adult, for which sites averaged over 41 errors/page!
Fig. 1 Average Frequency of Errors

However, errors are not the only indication of accessibility issues. When looking at the average alerts per page, we note some interesting patterns:

  • Across all categories, there were considerably more mobile alerts than desktop alerts.
  • The adult industry was the worst-performing industry in terms of alerts.
  • Banking & Financial Services is not the best performing industry, with Government & Non-Profit sites having the least alerts per page on average. Social Media, Business Services and Health & Medical Services all scored above Banking & Financial Services, all scored below 1 alert per page on average.
Fig. 2 Average Frequency of Alerts

When looking at contrast errors we see that:

  • Adult sites are still the poorest performers. However, Social Media, Travel & Leisure and Health & Medical Services also score poorly.
  • Banking & Financial Services were the top performers, with slightly less than 2 contrast errors per page on average.
Fig. 3 Average Contrast Errors/Page by Industry

Mobile Vs Desktop Performance

Overall, no significant difference was found in the number of errors or contrast errors per page on mobile vs desktop devices, but as previously discussed, we did see considerable differences in the average number of alerts per page on mobile compared to desktop, particularly in the Adult and Automotive industries.

When comparing average errors per page, Social Media was shown to be, perhaps unsurprisingly, more accessible on mobile than desktop, with mobile pages having just over 15 errors/page on average and over 20 errors per page on desktop.

Travel and Leisure showed a similar pattern, with around 21 mobile errors/page on average to desktop’s 25.

The biggest outlier, however, was Business Services, which averaged slightly under 21 errors/page on mobile devices, but almost 33 errors/page on desktop.

While Social Media and Travel & Leisure aren’t particularly surprising findings, given the very ‘mobile-first’ nature of their usership, it is surprising to see that Business Services underperform so heavily on desktop devices, given that ia more B2B nature would imply more desktop traffic.

Interestingly, there were no industries found to perform significantly worse on mobile than on desktop. The biggest difference between device type in this regard was found in the Automotive industry, with just over 20 errors/page on mobile compared to just over 17 errors/page on desktop.

Fig. 4 Mobile Vs. Desktop Errors/Industry

When looking at alerts, we consistently see far greater numbers of alerts on average for mobile sites than desktop ones. Automotive sites had the greatest discrepancy, with desktop sites having fewer than one alert on average and mobile having over 5.

Fig. 5 Mobile Vs. Desktop Alerts/Industry

Few significant differences between contrast errors on mobile and desktop were noted, except for Consumer Services sites, which, have around 37 contrast errors/page on desktop, compared to just over 20 on mobile.

Fig. 6 Mobile Vs. Desktop Contrast Errors/Industry

Error Free Sites

Of the 191 sites surveyed, just 3 were completely free of accessibility errors; 1 from the academic industry, 1 retail site, and 2 classified as ‘other’. This is around 1.6% of the sample.

While this does appear shocking, many sites were found to have relatively low numbers of accessibility errors, with 13 (6.8%) sites averaging 1 or fewer errors per page, and 41 (21.4%) having fewer than 5 errors/page on average.

Distribution of errors/page shows that most sites have <10 errors/page on average, indicating that while the sites currently have issues present, resolving these should not be complex or resource intensive.

Fig. 7 Frequency Distribution of Errors/Page

Most Common Accessibility Issues

The criteria we define as ‘errors’ are not the only issues that can negatively impact the experience of a user with accessibility needs on a site. Alerts indicate that there are potential issues that require further investigation, and Contrast Errors indicate an area of low colour contrast that may make the page more difficult to read and interact with for users with visual impairments.

This study found that sites surveyed had slightly over 1 error per page and slightly under 2 alerts. However, by far the most common error type found was contrast errors, with sites having just under 33 contrast errors per page on mobile and over 38 contrast errors per page on desktop.

TypeAv. Desktop FrequencyAv. Mobile Frequency
Alert1.971.97
Error1.131.09
Contrast38.6632.79
Errors
Fig. 8 Average Frequency of Errors
Alerts
Fig. 9 Average Frequency of Alerts

Most Common Accessibility Issues by Industry

Interestingly, while mobile and desktop devices show similar error and alert trends, we can see vastly different patterns when looking at domains from different industries.

Academic

Typically, academic sites had fewer of each error type than the average across all analysed sites. However, we do see that missing alt attributes seem to be far more frequent for these sites. Content of an academic nature is likely to be accompanied by diagrams or other functional images that support the written content, rather than simply being decorative. As a result, ensuring these images have high quality, descriptive alt text is particularly important to ensure the content is fully accessible.   

Fig. 10 Academic
Adult

Adult sites were found to be the worst performers of all industries analysed. Compared to the whole sample of analysed sites, this appears to be largely driven by missing alt links, empty buttons and most notably, contrast errors. Not adding alt text to linked images has two consequences for accessibility; firstly, it means that for users of screen readers or other AT, they may not be able to understand the contents of the image they are viewing and secondly, they will not know what destination to expect if they follow the link. Empty buttons have a similar result – with no text it can be difficult for users to predict what action the button may trigger, or where it may link to.

By far the most  common issue on adult sites were contrast errors, which  severely impact the readability of text for all users but is especially problematic for visually impaired.

Fig. 11 Adult
Automotive

Automotive sites mirrored the patterns we see across the wider sample, apart from empty links, which were less frequent on automotive sites than the whole sample average.

Fig. 12 Automotive
Banking & Financial Services

The top-performing industry in this study, sites in the Banking & Financial Services category had fewer than average occurrences of all error types. Sites in this category performed particularly well for colour contrast, with negligible contrast errors detected across this sector. It is important to note that (across all sites) the URLs tested were high Organic traffic URLs. This means that particularly for the banking sector, these are likely to be informational pages. While it is important that these pages are highly accessible, it does not mean that other areas of the site that aren’t crawlable (e.g. online banking interfaces) reflect the same levels of accessibility.

Fig. 13 Banking & Financial Services
Business Services

Sites in this category had considerably fewer contrast errors than the sample average, possibly due to differences in branding and colour palettes of B2B businesses compared to consumer sites. However, business services sites had more frequent occurrences of missing alt attributes, missing labels, and empty buttons. While missing alt attributes may not affect the site’s accessibility (it is not necessary to add alt text to images with no function beyond being decorative), missing labels can make it difficult for users of AT to fill out forms (which may also negatively impact conversion) and empty buttons can make navigation unnecessarily difficult.

Fig.. 14 Business Services
Consumer Services

Consumer services sites showed the opposite to Business Services, with far more contrast errors than the sample average, but fewer missing form labels. Perhaps this is a result of consumer-facing brands typically being more colourful and vibrant than B2B sites, with more frequently rotating campaigns and seasonal changes which increase the margin for error.

Fig. 15 Consumer Services
Government & Non-Profit

Due to legislation coming into force in September 2020 that requires all government-owned sites to comply with WCAG AAA, we expected Government & Non-Profit to be the strongest performer, but they followed Banking & Financial Services to become the second-placed category. These sites typically had considerably fewer than average numbers of contrast errors and empty links, which is indicative of the typically blander designs of most government-owned sites compared to many highly visual, branded consumer sites. However, Government & Non-Profit sites had considerably more missing Table Headers than the sample average. This may be, in part, due to the fact that these sites have more tabulated data than most. Missing table headers can make tables very difficult for users of AT to interpret.

Fig. 16 Government & Non-Profit
Health & Medical Services

Sites in the Health & Medical Services industry typically showed similar error patterns to the sample average. However, contrast errors again were found to be far higher than average (around double) across these domains. It is unclear what would cause these sites to score so poorly in terms of contrast, as they are typically informational and don’t tend to have the same level of highly visual, branded content that we see in the more poorly performing consumer-facing sites.

Fig. 17 Health & Medical Services
News & Media

News & Media sites tend to underperform in a few areas; missing alt links and alt attributes, empty links and contrast errors. It is easy to see how, in the world of fast-paced publishing and real-time news reporting, adding alt text to imagery and linked images, or ensuring links have a descriptive text element or alt text could slip by the wayside. However, the quickly evolving nature of the content on these sites is exactly why these attributes are crucial for accessibility. Users of AT (Assistive technology )or those with visual impairments who rely on these attributes to navigate a site may be able to familiarise themselves with the layout and navigation without these attributes, if they frequent the site and it remains more or less the same every time they visit (for example, an online store). However, if, as with most news and media outlets, the content is constantly updating and being refreshed, it becomes even more important to provide adequate signposting and labelling to ensure accessibility.

Fig. 18 News & Media
Retail

Retail sites scored below average in the use of alt links, alt attributes, missing form labels and, as we see with other consumer-facing sites, contrast errors. As with consumer services sites, it is reasonable to assume that missing alt attributes and alt links could be in part due to the quickly evolving retail landscape, changing promotions and campaigns that make adding alt attributes too resource-heavy. In many cases on these kinds of sites, they are image-rich purely for decorative purposes (for example banner imagery). Non-functional images needed have alt text, so missing alt text on these sites may not be indicative of a serious issue in all cases. However, linked images missing an alt attribute can make navigation particularly difficult, especially where important text that describes the link destination is embedded in the image and not overlaid as HTML and included within an alt attribute.

Forms, conversely, tend to be more static in nature. This indicates that form labelling issues may not be a symptom of fast-changing content slipping through the net and highly decorative elements that do not require special accessibility considerations but are the result of them never being accessible in the first place. It is likely that resolving form labelling issues once will result in long-term accessibility improvements.  

Fig. 19 Retail
Social Media

Social Media sites scored below average for contrast errors, empty links and empty headings. Interestingly, some Social Media sites do an excellent job of ensuring some aspects of accessibility are catered for. For example, particularly low levels of images missing alt text were found amongst these sites, which is amazing given the highly image-rich nature of these sites. Indeed, Facebook automatically adds alt text to all images uploaded and allows users to override this with their own alt text if they wish. It is worth noting that as the pages analysed here were the most popular in terms of organic traffic, the pages analysed are likely to tend towards informational and signup pages, as opposed to the platform’s actual interface. Analysis of password-protected areas of the site (profiles, newsfeeds, messaging functionality) may show a different pattern.

Fig. 20 Social Media
Travel & Leisure

Finally, Travel & Leisure sites scored most poorly on contrast errors (with almost double the average number of contrast errors per page) and empty links. Again, the highly consumer-facing, visual nature of travel and leisure sites lends itself to contrast errors, but also means that they should be relatively easy to resolve. However, empty links, especially if they are the result of linked images with no alt text, can be detrimental to site navigation. These should be resolved.

These sites also tend to have slightly above average numbers of images missing alt text. This could be indicative of an issue, or a symptom of their design being heavily reliant on decorative, but functionless, imagery.

Fig. 21 Travel & Leisure

Sites Missing Skiplinks

Skip links allow users to skip their focus to the main content of the page, without having to manually bypass boilerplate content such as the navigation and header. This is particularly useful for screen-reader users (typically those with visual impairments), or users who prefer to use the tab key to navigate around a site rather than a mouse (often users with motor impairments, but also users who simply prefer not to use a mouse). Simple to implement, skip links are an accessibility (and usability staple).

IndustryDesktop % Missing Skip linkMobile % Missing Skiplink
Academic98.0098.00
Adult100.00100.00
Automotive77.5078.05
Banking & Financial Services70.0070.00
Business Services95.7195.71
Consumer Services81.2281.22
Government & Non-Profit28.0028.00
Health & Medical Services68.3768.69
News & Media78.0577.81
Other90.7590.54
Retail65.4672.16
Social Media98.9198.89
Travel & Leisure78.5778.57
All79.4380.52

Sites Missing ARIA

ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) attributes provide descriptive labels for interactions that are not natively compatible with assistive technologies such as screen readers. These could include live-updates content feeds, UI components like sliders, remove from cart buttons on checkouts or any other (typically JavaScript driven) dynamic component that does not automatically have an alternative interaction for AT. The absence of ARIA attributes on a page could indicate that the page will be difficult for users of AT to interpret.

Again, adult sites were the poorest performers, with almost half of the tested URLs not having a single ARIA attribute, both on mobile and desktop.

Social media, Automotive were the strongest industries, with none of the tested URLs missing ARIA. Academic, Health & Medical Services, and Travel & Leisure sites followed close behind, all with less than 5% of URLs having no ARIA attributes.

Industry% Desktop Sites Missing ARIA% Mobile Sites Missing ARIA
Academic4.004.00
Adult46.0048.00
Automotive0.000.00
Banking & Financial Services12.5012.50
Business Services12.8612.86
Consumer Services11.3512.23
Government & Non-Profit18.0018.00
Health & Medical Services3.060.00
News & Media9.459.73
Other14.5012.79
Retail11.9814.05
Social Media0.000.00
Travel & Leisure1.431.43
All11.1911.28

Conclusion

This piece of research finds that accessibility practices are poorly adopted across the majority of URLs. Some industries (namely Banking & Financial Services), performed strongly, with very small numbers of errors being reported per URL, while others (Adult) performed exceptionally poorly, with the highest total number of errors (mainly driven by contrast errors), alerts and contrast errors. The Adult industry also had the highest frequency of missing Skip Links (with 100% of sites missing Skip Links) and missing ARIA attributes (just under half of Adult URLs had no ARIA attributes).

However, the most common accessibility issues were not exclusively related to accessibility but have much wider UX and SEO benefits. Images missing alt text, links without anchor text, colour contrast issues, redundant links and redundant titles and small text are not just accessibility issues – they are omittances of general good practice. They are also typically simple to resolve, with minimal design or developer resource to implement.


Data Tables

Average Frequency of Errors

Error TypeMobileDesktopAverage
Alt Area Missing0.049310710.0487030170.049007
Alt Input Missing0.0095440080.0095288510.009536
Alt Link Missing3.2773064693.2339862363.255646
Alt Map Missing0.0031813360.0031762840.003179
Alt Missing4.14952283.9687665434.059145
Alt Spacer Missing0.4082714740.3589200640.383596
Aria Menu Broken0.389713680.4727368980.431225
Aria Reference Broken0.7974549310.6511381680.724297
Blink000
Button Empty2.4973488872.2768660672.387107
Heading Empty0.6744432660.601376390.63791
Label Empty0.5222693530.5272631020.524766
Label Missing2.7465535522.7019587082.724256
Label Multiple0.4194061510.372683960.396045
Language Missing0.1452810180.1561672840.150724
Link empty8.5588547198.4017998948.480327
Link Skip Broken0.0402969250.033880360.037089
Longdesc Invalid0.0063626720.0052938060.005828
Marquee000
Meta Refresh0.005832450.0058231870.005828
TH Empty0.2205726410.2345156170.227544
Title Invalid0.0100742310.0095288510.009802

Average Frequency of Alerts

Error TypesMobileDesktopAverage
Accesskey0.2449628840.2445738490.244768
Alt Duplicate0.5625662780.3710958180.466831
Alt Long0.7879109230.8787718370.833341
Alt Redundant2.3032873812.0307040762.166996
Alt Suspicious0.549310710.5352038120.542257
Applet000
Audio Video0.0180275720.0137638960.015896
Event Handler3.0662778372.9020645842.984171
Fieldset Missing0.6092258750.6453149810.62727
Flash0.019618240.0195870830.019603
H1 Missing0.0911983030.0884065640.089802
Heading Missing0.0392364790.0386447860.038941
Heading Possible1.1532343580.6924298570.922832
Heading Skipped0.7454931070.7437797780.744636
HTML5 Video Audio0.2868504770.2789835890.282917
Javascript Jumpmenu0.0567338280.0571731070.056953
Label Orphaned1.1235418881.1545791421.139061
Label Title0.3064687170.3197458970.313107
Legend Missing0.1956521740.2001058760.197879
Link Document0.0068928950.0068819480.006887
Link Excel000
Link Internal Broken0.7131495230.7188988880.716024
Link PDF0.3944856840.3970354690.395761
Link Powerpoint000
Link Redundant18.7136797517.8544203318.28405
Link Suspicious1.1813361611.1852832191.18331
Link Word0.0106044540.0105876120.010596
Longdesc000
Noscript4.1341463414.3652726314.249709
Plugin0.041357370.0412916890.041325
Region Missing0.1680805940.1736368450.170859
Tabindex1.1972428421.1556379041.17644
Table Caption Possible0.0185577940.0185283220.018543
Table Layout0.6585365850.6823716250.670454
Text Justify0.2364793210.2043409210.22041
Text Small6.3706256638.3372154587.353921
Title Redundant27.5885471927.4076230827.49809
Underline1.198833511.0884065641.14362

Average Contrast Errors/Industry

IndustryDesktop Av. FrequencyMobile Av. Frequency
Academic18.1617.96
Adult61.0460.48
Automotive26.62516.95121951
Banking
& Financial Services
1.9252
Business
Services
16.2571428616.65714286
Communications
Services
00
Consumer
Services
34.7685589523.90393013
Government
& Non-Profit
16.612
Health
& Medical Services
45.9897959245.8989899
News
& Media
32.5975609828.80243161
Other52.207546.86700767
Retail37.7409470826.06756757
Social
Media
53.6413043546.22222222
Travel
& Leisure
42.0714285751.51428571

Issue Types by Industry (Mobile Vs. Desktop)

IndustryTypeDesktop Av. FrequencyMobile Av. Frequency
AcademicAlert0.8144444441.270555556
AdultAlert3.1377777785.464444444
AutomotiveAlert0.9381944445.400406504
Banking
& Financial Services
Alert0.4048611111.595138889
Business
Services
Alert0.6019841271.170634921
Communications
Services
Alert00
Consumer
Services
Alert0.9563318781.457666181
Government
& Non-Profit
Alert0.5344444440.776666667
Health
& Medical Services
Alert0.8713151931.089225589
News
& Media
Alert1.6148373981.80327592
OtherAlert1.0665277782.394572322
RetailAlert1.7069018882.639489489
Social
Media
Alert0.7765700480.97037037
Travel
& Leisure
Alert1.6400793652.018650794
AcademicContrast18.1617.96
AdultContrast61.0460.48
AutomotiveContrast26.62516.95121951
Banking
& Financial Services
Contrast1.9252
Business
Services
Contrast16.2571428616.65714286
Communications
Services
Contrast00
Consumer
Services
Contrast34.7685589523.90393013
Government
& Non-Profit
Contrast16.612
Health
& Medical Services
Contrast45.9897959245.8989899
News
& Media
Contrast32.5975609828.80243161
OtherContrast52.207546.86700767
RetailContrast37.7409470826.06756757
Social
Media
Contrast53.6413043546.22222222
Travel
& Leisure
Contrast42.0714285751.51428571
AcademicError0.780.78
AdultError1.951.94
AutomotiveError0.800.94
Banking
& Financial Services
Error0.140.14
Business
Services
Error1.541.07
Communications
Services
Error0.000.00
Consumer
Services
Error0.750.83
Government
& Non-Profit
Error0.720.71
Health
& Medical Services
Error0.760.78
News
& Media
Error1.751.72
OtherError0.950.93
RetailError1.411.45
Social
Media
Error0.970.75
Travel
& Leisure
Error1.190.99

Average Frequency of Accessibility Issues

TypeError TypeAv. Desktop FrequencyAv. Mobile FrequencyAverage
alertAccesskey0.2449628840.2445738490.244768
alertAlt
Duplicate
0.5625662780.3710958180.466831
alertAlt
Long
0.7879109230.8787718370.833341
alertAlt
Redundant
2.3032873812.0307040762.166996
alertAlt
Suspicious
0.549310710.5352038120.542257
alertApplet000
alertAudio
Video
0.0180275720.0137638960.015896
alertEvent
Handler
3.0662778372.9020645842.984171
alertFieldset
Missing
0.6092258750.6453149810.62727
alertFlash0.019618240.0195870830.019603
alertH1
Missing
0.0911983030.0884065640.089802
alertHeading
Missing
0.0392364790.0386447860.038941
alertHeading
Possible
1.1532343580.6924298570.922832
alertHeading
Skipped
0.7454931070.7437797780.744636
alertHTML5
Video Audio
0.2868504770.2789835890.282917
alertJavascript
Jumpmenu
0.0567338280.0571731070.056953
alertLabel
Orphaned
1.1235418881.1545791421.139061
alertLabel
Title
0.3064687170.3197458970.313107
alertLegend
Missing
0.1956521740.2001058760.197879
alertLink
Document
0.0068928950.0068819480.006887
alertLink
Excel
000
alertLink
Internal Broken
0.7131495230.7188988880.716024
alertLink
PDF
0.3944856840.3970354690.395761
alertLink
Powerpoint
000
alertLink
Redundant
18.7136797517.8544203318.28405
alertLink
Suspicious
1.1813361611.1852832191.18331
alertLink
Word
0.0106044540.0105876120.010596
alertLongdesc000
alertNoscript4.1341463414.3652726314.249709
alertPlugin0.041357370.0412916890.041325
alertRegion
Missing
0.1680805940.1736368450.170859
alertTabindex1.1972428421.1556379041.17644
alertTable
Caption Possible
0.0185577940.0185283220.018543
alertTable
Layout
0.6585365850.6823716250.670454
alertText
Justify
0.2364793210.2043409210.22041
alertText
Small
6.3706256638.3372154587.353921
alertTitle
Redundant
27.5885471927.4076230827.49809
alertUnderline1.198833511.0884065641.14362
contrastContrast38.6590668132.7877183735.72339
errorAlt
Area Missing
0.049310710.0487030170.049007
errorAlt
Input Missing
0.0095440080.0095288510.009536
errorAlt
Link Missing
3.2773064693.2339862363.255646
errorAlt
Map Missing
0.0031813360.0031762840.003179
errorAlt
Missing
4.14952283.9687665434.059145
errorAlt
Spacer Missing
0.4082714740.3589200640.383596
errorAria
Menu Broken
0.389713680.4727368980.431225
errorAria
Reference Broken
0.7974549310.6511381680.724297
errorBlink000
errorButton
Empty
2.4973488872.2768660672.387107
errorHeading
Empty
0.6744432660.601376390.63791
errorLabel
Empty
0.5222693530.5272631020.524766
errorLabel
Missing
2.7465535522.7019587082.724256
errorLabel
Multiple
0.4194061510.372683960.396045
errorLanguage
Missing
0.1452810180.1561672840.150724
errorLink
empty
8.5588547198.4017998948.480327
errorLink
Skip Broken
0.0402969250.033880360.037089
errorLongdesc
Invalid
0.0063626720.0052938060.005828
errorMarquee000
errorMeta
Refresh
0.005832450.0058231870.005828
errorTH
Empty
0.2205726410.2345156170.227544
errorTitle
Invalid
0.0100742310.0095288510.009802

Accessibility Issue Average Frequency by Industry

Error TypeTypeIndustryAv. Desktop FrequencyAv.Mobile FrequencyIndustry AverageOverall Average
Alt Area MissingerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.05
Alt Input MissingerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.01
Alt Link MissingerrorAcademic0.440.440.663.26
Alt Map MissingerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.00
Alt MissingerrorAcademic8.528.3812.710.00
Alt Spacer MissingerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.38
Aria Menu BrokenerrorAcademic0.960.961.440.43
Aria Reference BrokenerrorAcademic0.360.440.580.72
Button EmptyerrorAcademic1.081.081.622.39
ContrastcontrastAcademic18.1617.9627.1435.72
Heading EmptyerrorAcademic0.020.020.030.64
Label EmptyerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.52
Label MissingerrorAcademic0.460.460.692.72
Label MultipleerrorAcademic0.000.000.002.72
Language MissingerrorAcademic0.060.060.090.15
Link emptyerrorAcademic4.464.586.758.48
Link Skip BrokenerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.04
Longdesc InvaliderrorAcademic0.000.000.000.01
MarqueeerrorAcademic0.000.000.000.51
Meta RefresherrorAcademic0.000.000.000.01
TH EmptyerrorAcademic0.020.040.040.23
Title InvaliderrorAcademic0.000.000.000.01
Alt Area MissingerrorAdult0.000.000.000.05
Alt Input MissingerrorAdult0.000.000.000.01
Alt Link MissingerrorAdult17.0617.1225.6212.15
Alt Map MissingerrorAdult0.000.000.000.00
Alt MissingerrorAdult2.362.343.534.06
Alt Spacer MissingerrorAdult0.160.240.280.38
Aria Menu BrokenerrorAdult0.000.000.000.43
Aria Reference BrokenerrorAdult0.000.000.000.72
Button EmptyerrorAdult12.7412.7219.102.39
ContrastcontrastAdult61.0460.4891.282.39
Heading EmptyerrorAdult0.600.600.900.64
Label EmptyerrorAdult0.600.600.900.52
Label MissingerrorAdult1.701.702.552.72
Label MultipleerrorAdult0.000.000.000.40
Language MissingerrorAdult0.200.200.300.15
Link emptyerrorAdult5.565.128.128.48
Link Skip BrokenerrorAdult0.000.000.000.04
Longdesc InvaliderrorAdult0.000.000.000.01
MarqueeerrorAdult0.000.000.000.00
Meta RefresherrorAdult0.000.000.000.01
TH EmptyerrorAdult0.000.000.000.23
Title InvaliderrorAdult0.000.000.000.01
Alt Area MissingerrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.05
Alt Input MissingerrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.01
Alt Link MissingerrorAutomotive2.734.735.093.26
Alt Map MissingerrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.00
Alt MissingerrorAutomotive2.532.763.904.06
Alt Spacer MissingerrorAutomotive0.430.150.500.38
Aria Menu BrokenerrorAutomotive1.030.781.420.43
Aria Reference BrokenerrorAutomotive0.080.100.120.72
Button EmptyerrorAutomotive3.103.054.622.39
ContrastcontrastAutomotive26.6316.9535.1035.72
Heading EmptyerrorAutomotive0.230.220.330.64
Label EmptyerrorAutomotive1.000.981.490.52
Label MissingerrorAutomotive3.303.765.182.72
Label MultipleerrorAutomotive0.000.170.090.40
Language MissingerrorAutomotive0.150.170.240.15
Link emptyerrorAutomotive2.232.833.648.48
Link Skip BrokenerrorAutomotive0.050.050.070.04
Longdesc InvaliderrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.01
MarqueeerrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.00
Meta RefresherrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.01
TH EmptyerrorAutomotive0.030.020.040.23
Title InvaliderrorAutomotive0.000.000.000.01
Alt Area MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.05
Alt Input MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.01
Alt Link MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.003.26
Alt Map MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.00
Alt MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.900.901.354.06
Alt Spacer MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.38
Aria Menu BrokenerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.43
Aria Reference BrokenerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.300.300.450.72
Button EmptyerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.002.39
ContrastcontrastBanking
& Financial Services
1.932.002.9335.72
Heading EmptyerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.200.200.300.64
Label EmptyerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.080.080.110.52
Label MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.600.600.902.72
Label MultipleerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.050.030.40
Language MissingerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.030.030.040.15
Link emptyerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.830.831.248.48
Link Skip BrokenerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.04
Longdesc InvaliderrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.01
MarqueeerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.00
Meta RefresherrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.030.030.040.00
TH EmptyerrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.23
Title InvaliderrorBanking
& Financial Services
0.000.000.000.01
Alt Area MissingerrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.05
Alt Input MissingerrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.01
Alt Link MissingerrorBusiness
Services
0.160.160.243.26
Alt Map MissingerrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.00
Alt MissingerrorBusiness
Services
7.246.6610.574.06
Alt Spacer MissingerrorBusiness
Services
0.100.040.120.38
Aria Menu BrokenerrorBusiness
Services
0.001.540.770.43
Aria Reference BrokenerrorBusiness
Services
0.030.030.040.72
Button EmptyerrorBusiness
Services
13.501.9614.480.02
ContrastcontrastBusiness
Services
16.2616.6624.5935.72
Heading EmptyerrorBusiness
Services
1.031.031.540.64
Label EmptyerrorBusiness
Services
0.390.390.580.52
Label MissingerrorBusiness
Services
4.274.716.632.72
Label MultipleerrorBusiness
Services
0.000.260.130.40
Language MissingerrorBusiness
Services
0.060.060.090.15
Link emptyerrorBusiness
Services
4.904.897.348.48
Link Skip BrokenerrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.04
Longdesc InvaliderrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.01
MarqueeerrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.00
Meta RefresherrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.01
TH EmptyerrorBusiness
Services
0.770.771.160.23
Title InvaliderrorBusiness
Services
0.000.000.000.01
Alt Area MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.05
Alt Input MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.01
Alt Link MissingerrorCommunication
Services
1.101.101.653.26
Alt Map MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.00
Alt MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.100.100.154.06
Alt Spacer MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.38
Aria Menu BrokenerrorCommunication
Services
0.500.500.750.43
Aria Reference BrokenerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.72
Button EmptyerrorCommunication
Services
0.300.900.752.39
ContrastcontrastCommunication
Services
36.8024.3048.9535.72
Heading EmptyerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.64
Label EmptyerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.52
Label MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.100.100.152.72
Label MultipleerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.40
Language MissingerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.15
Link emptyerrorCommunication
Services
1.501.602.308.48
Link Skip BrokenerrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.04
Longdesc InvaliderrorCommunication
Services
0.000.000.000.01
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Services
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